Handbook for Schooling the Hitler Youth 

A Factual Outlook on Life: The foundation of the National Socialist outlook on life is the perception of the unlikeness of men. If, at first, we relate this unlikeness solely to physical appearance, no one will wish to contest it. For it is all too apparent that the red skin, the yellow, the black, and the white are very different. Moreover, within the family of white men all people are not the same.

Every attentive observer can recognise distinctions in physical size and shape. The colouring of the eyes, the hair and the skin is also very different. But there are also distinctions among men with respect to mental and spiritual traits. This becomes very clear to us whenever different types of men converse about one and the same subject. To one person, for example, work is a curse from heaven, a punishment of God, and a burden to be avoided as much as possible. For another, on the contrary, it is a necessity of life which first gives the human being his true meaning. Again, for some, courage and loyalty are nothing but great stupidities. They would rather be live cowards than dead heroes. For others, however, courage and loyalty are the very marks by which they treasure and value a man. For them a promise once made is binding. They stick to it through good times and bad. They cannot live without honour and prefer death to cowardice. There are men, therefore, who are differentiated from others not only because of physical characteristics. Just as deep and impossible to bridge are the differences in spirit and soul. Body, spirit and soul primarily constitute the complete man because they form a unified whole. Men must, therefore, be considered with respect to their inner makeup. For the great difference which separates those of German blood from Jews is clearly evident, although physical characteristics seem to designate both as members of the family of white men. We know, therefore, about the unlikeness of men. We suit out actions accordingly, and evaluate what happens according to this knowledge. Times gone by have ignored the obvious unlikeness of men, or have consciously acted contrary to better knowledge. During the colonisation of Paraguay by the Jesuits early in the 19th century, for example, a marriage law was promulgated, according to which the white settlers might marry only natives, Indian women. Perhaps it was thought that in this way natives could be raised to the level of the whites. In reality this mixing produced unfortunate hybrids, which were to be counted neither as whites nor as natives. They inherited in most cases the worst characteristics of both groups, being uncertain and unstable both in spirit and soul. Even in our day the fact is shown many times that certain men have no feeling for race honour or race shame. The many hybrids resulting from unions with Germans of black troops occupying the Rhineland and of Jews are tragic witnesses of the fact. Even those occupying the highest places in government during the System Time [the phrase System Time refers to the period from 1918 to 1933 when Germany was governed by a system of coalition parties] consciously closed their eyes to the facts of race. They refused, for example, to allow the well-known student of races, Ludwig Schemann, to continue his studies regarding the nature of races and deprived him of the means for his research. Even today the racial ideas of National Socialism have implacable opponents. Free Masons, Marxists, and the Christian Church joins hands in brotherly accord on this point. The world-wide order of Free Masons conceals its Jewish plans for ruling the world behind the catchword mankind or humanity. Masonry can take as much credit for its effort to bring Jews and Turks into the fold as does Christianity itself. Marxism has the same goal as Free Masonry. In this case, to disguise its real intentions, the slogan equality, liberty and fraternity is preached. Under Jewish leadership, Marxism intends to bring together everyone who bears the face of man. The Christians, above all the Roman Church, reject the race idea with the citation: Before God all men are equal. All who have the Christian belief, whether Jews, bush niggers, or whites, are dearer to them and more worthwhile than a German who does not confess Christianity. The one binding bond, above and beyond all restrictions, is the Belief which alone brings salvation. One proof that the Roman Church rejects the race idea against its own better judgement is shown by the following facts. At one time there existed the danger that the aims of the Jesuit order would be jeopardised or perverted by its Jewish members. A rule forbidding admission of Jews into the Jesuit order was issued. Today, since the danger is long since past, the church disregards it. Now why do we find in Free Masonry, Marxism, and the Christian church this mistaken teaching of the equality of all men? All three are striving more or less for power over the whole earth. therefore they must necessarily be international. They can never acknowledge the human ties of race, community, or nation if they do not wish to give up their own aims. In spite of this powerful opposition, however, the race idea goes on gaining ground. The truth gradually prevails. We need only think of the growing line up of states set for defence against the destructive influence of the Jews. And also we need to remember that the immigration laws of many states overseas do not let Jews or other undesirables into the country. However, we will not stick to superficialities, but try to acquire greater clarity regarding this question. For only then can we understand rightly the fourth point of the program of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. It states: Only those who are comrades of our folk can be citizens of the state. Only those who are of German blood, irrespective of religious belief, can be comrades of our folk. Consequently no Jews can be comrades of our folk. 

The Unlikeness of Men Possession of German blood is therefore essential for admission into the community of German people. A Jew who, during the System Time, has assumed a German name and adopted the Christian belief, is and remains a Jew. Such differences as exist between Negroes, Indians, and others are evident at once. It is more difficult to differentiate races in the case of a people which consists of approximately similar and related races. A layman generally says that one Japanese looks like another. If a Japanese comes to Germany he too will surely say at first glance that we all look the same.

By more precise observation of the Germans we soon notice they do not all look the same. Moreover, they are not differentiated merely with respect to one or two characteristics. We must explain the concept of race somewhat more exactly. Gunther says in his book, Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes: A race is a collection of individuals differentiated from every other group (constituted in such a way) by its unique combination of bodily characteristics and soul attributes and continually reproduces its own kind. Actually pure races of people scarcely exist today. Collections of individuals with the same biological inheritance, as the term races may be defined, have everywhere intermingled. Race mixtures have sprung into being. So it is in Europe, and consequently in Germany, everywhere the same basic, race substance, if we are willing to overlook certain special, foreign ingredients. One thing, however, does distinguish peoples from each other. The proportions of the races are different. Many peoples in Europe have preserved above all the Nordic character; others the Western, or Eastern, or East Baltic, and so forth. We will acquaint ourselves with the basic race ingredients of the German people. We are accustomed to consider every living being in its entirety, every plant, every animal, and every human being. To man belongs his body, his mind, and his soul. These three form a unity. So in our consideration of races we will investigate not only physical structure, but also mental and spiritual characteristics. In considering bodily form we have to take into account above all things size and shape of body, skull, colour of hair, the eyes and the skin, as well as the texture of the hair. According to the prevailing view we can differentiate with certainty the following races in Europe and consequently in Germany: 1. The Nordic race; 2. The Phalic race; 3. The Western race; 4. The Dinaric race; 5. The Eastern race; 6. The East Baltic race The names are from Gunther and selected primarily because of the chief occupancy region today of the races concerned, which we present in chart 1. CHART 1. — Geographical distribution of races in the German Reich 1. THE NORDIC RACE The larger, more compact groups of Nordics are found in Germany and in large sections of the lands of northern Europe, in Scotland, Denmark, on the Baltic coast, in Sweden and Norway. The Nordic race as well as the Phalic are the tallest of any among the races of Europe. The matured man is, on the average, 1.75 metres tall. Perhaps this height is due to late sexual maturity. The farther one advances to the north of Europe the more often one finds growth still taking place between the ages of 20 and 25. Old age sets in much later, too. The Nordic man grows tall and slender. He has, according to our discoveries, limbs which are large in proportion to the body. That suits our sense of beauty. Peoples with another racial makeup apparently have quite another ideal of beauty. The skull of the Nordic man likewise grows narrow, long. The face is small. The breadth in proportion to length is as 3 to 4. The shape of the face is striking, not unaccentedly round. The nose is high set. In proportion to the rest of the face it is likewise small. If it is indented then this occurs in the upper third in contrast to the Dinaric and north Asiatic races. The skin is light, rosy-white, and delicate. In contrast to the skin of many other races it is distinguished by a lack of pigmentation. The hair is smooth, wavy, thin, and fine. Its colour varies from light to golden blond. As to eyes we distinguish the colouring primarily according to the colours of the iris. The Nordic race has light coloured eyes, blue, blue-grey to grey.

In what follows we shall see still further how the bodily characteristics of the Nordic race are distinguishable from those of other races. Such distinctions also apply in the case of the internal organs. There are, for example, differences in the structure and size of the brain and the bodily glands. Mental and spiritual differences are naturally related thereto. In dealing with traits of mind and soul even more than in dealing with bodily characteristics we must concentrate upon entire groups of people belonging to a particular race rather than upon individual representatives of this race. Now what distinguishes the Nordic race from all others? It is uncommonly gifted mentally. It is outstanding for truthfulness and energy. Nordic men for the most part possess, even in regard to themselves, a great power of judgement. They incline to be taciturn and cautious. They feel instantly that too loud talking is undignified. They are persistent and stick to a purpose when once they have set themselves to it. Their energy is displayed not only in warfare but also in technology and in scientific research. They are predisposed to leadership by nature. The Nordic race is most closely related to: 2. THE PHALIC RACE CHART 3. — Phalic skull In Germany we find this race primarily in Westphalia, from whence it derives its name, in Swabia and in Württemberg. Outside of Germany they are to be found in Sweden and also, curiously enough, on the Canary Islands west from North Africa. The Phalic race on the average surpasses the Nordic in physical size. It averages in height over 1.75 metres. In contrast to the Nordic it is not a tall and slender race, but rather tall and broad. It acts, therefore, much more forcibly. The skull, however, in contrast to the Nordic skull, is broad faced, although just as long up to the middle of the head. The nose is broader than that of the Nordic race, but proportionately smaller, for example, than that of the East Baltic race. The skin is just like that of the Nordic race, a clear, rosy-white. The hair is likewise blond, perhaps somewhat more reddish. It is, in fact, somewhat stiffer, wavy or even curly. The eyes are light in colour, similar to those of the Nordic race, but more often grey than blue. We see, therefore, that the Nordic and Phalic races are rather alike in all these characteristics. The only difference is that the Phalic race acts more forcibly, dynamically, as Gunther once said. Similarly, differences in the soul qualities of the two races are not very great. The Phalic man is less emotional than the Nordic man. He is said to be better suited for being the driving force under the leadership of Nordic men than for leadership himself. Great patience characterises his pursuit of an aim. Never could he be as fool-hardy, perhaps, as Nordic man. He is governed by a strong feeling of loyalty toward other men. He is more good natured and more cordial than the Nordic man. The Nordic and the Phalic man seem, therefore, to be more nearly related to each other than to any other race. 3. THE WESTERN RACE CHART 4. — Western skull 

This race is scarcely represented in Germany in the pure form. We encounter it in mixtures principally in the Rhineland. It is to be found today in England, France, and on the half-islanded Pyrenees, therefore in the West of Europe. Outlying remnants are also encountered in the Balkans. The physical proportions are similar to those of the Nordic race. The Western man, therefore, is not thick set but slender. He is not tall and slender, however, but neat and slender. The Western race is the smallest in Europe. The Western man is, on the average, 1.61 metres tall. Breadth of shoulders and smallness of hips are not so marked as in the case of the Nordic man. Sexual maturity comes earlier. For that reason old age sets in earlier too. The skull is long and small faced. It is similar, therefore, to the skull of the Nordic race. It is not, however, angular. The chin is not so pronounced. The head is smaller in comparison to the size of the body than is that of the Nordic race. The nose is not proportionately so high. The skin is not light, but tinted. It is uniformly brown. The hair is like that of the Nordic, fine and smooth, and also curly. It is oily. The colour varies from dark brown to black. The eyes likewise vary from brown to dark brown. Compared to the Nordic race there are great differences in soul qualities. The men of the Western race are much more ready to talk, lively, even loquacious. In comparison to the Nordic and Phalic men they have much less patience or steadiness. They act more by feeling than by reason. The difficult and burdensome are repugnant to the man of the Western race. He is excitable, even passionate. The Western race with all its mental agility lacks creative power. This race has produced only a few outstanding men. All in all the contrasts between the Nordic and the Phalic races and the Western race appear to be very great, but chiefly in the realm of mind and soul. 4. THE DINARIC RACE CHART 5. — Dinaric skull This race has few similarities to the Nordic so far as bodily structure is concerned. In Germany we find these people in the south and south-west as well as in central Germany. In Europe outside of the Reich we encounter them in England, in the eastern Alpine lands (they are named after the Dinaric Alps) and in the Balkans as far as the Ukraine. The size of body approximates that of the Nordic race. The Dinaric man is, on the average, 1.74 metres tall. He is tall and slender. The skull is both small faced and short headed. The back of the head scarcely rises above the neck. The nose is very high and large. It is often very sharply indented. The skin is brownish. The texture of the hair is fine, curly. In contrast to other races bodily hair is also well developed. Its colouring is brownish-black to black. The eyes are dark-brown to very dark. So far as mind and soul are concerned the Dinaric man has some outstanding attributes. Like the Nordic he is very proud and unceasingly brave. He is a good warrior. His love for homeland is great. He is equipped with more creative ability than the neighbouring Eastern man. In contrast to the Nordic the Dinaric is much more subject to his moods. He is noisier by nature, more loquacious. Great thought processes and investigations are not in him. He does have, however, a great gift for music. We have yet to consider two races that seem somewhat closely related to each other. One is: 5. THE EASTERN RACE CHART 6. 

We find them in the south and south-west of Germany. In the west they spread out towards Holland and into central France. To the south we can trace them even into the Alpine lands and central Italy. So far as physical size is concerned the Eastern man is also not as large as the Nordic man. The man has as average height of 1.63 metres. Although he is, therefore, almost as tall as the members of the Western race, yet in physical makeup he is, as to them and as to the Nordic race, the exact opposite. He is thick-set, compact, clumsy. His shape is broad based. He reaches sexual maturity early, but also grows old very early. The breadth of shoulders and smallness of hips, characteristic of the Nordic man, are, in his case, not pronounced. the legs are, in proportion to the length of the body, rather short. In contrast to the Nordic and Western man, as well as the East Baltic man, he is rather heavy. His skull is short, wide-faced, round. It has scarcely any very pronounced lines. The skull width and length relate as 9 to 10. The ratio is quite unlike that in the case of the skull of the Nordic man (3 to 4). The nose is sunk low, less sharply drawn. The skin is yellow-brown to yellowish. It is not so delicate as that of the Nordic race. The hair is thicker and tighter. It is stiff. In colour it varies from dark brown to black. The eyes are brown. In spiritual attitude great differences exist between the Eastern and the Nordic men. The former are, to be sure, courageous, but not rash and bold. They are unwarlike. They incline to craftiness. They lack the spirit of rulers. For this reason they are compliant and submissive subjects. The Eastern race is always the led, never the leader. Its capacity for holding together large communities seldom stands out. 6. THE EAST BALTIC RACE CHART 7. — East Baltic skull It surpasses the Eastern race in bodily size but slightly. The East Baltic man is, on the average, 1.64 metres tall. The growth is similar to that of the Eastern race. The East Baltic man is merely more energetic. He is, to be sure, short and large boned. He is broad based. The man has great breadth of shoulders. In fullness of body he is quite like the Eastern man. Although he seems to mature rather late; yet, in spite of that, he begins to age early. The skull is like that of the Easterner, short, wide-faced. It is, however, more angular and bonier. Remarkable is the size of the face in relation to the size of the brain. The nose is sunk low, rather broad. The skin is light, grey-yellow. The hair is thick and coarse, stiff. Its colour is ash-blond, but can have a grey undertone. In youth the colour of the hair can be very like that of the Nordic race. The eyes are grey, blue-grey to water-blue. Little as yet is known about the soul qualities of East Baltic men. They are no leaders, by nature, but need leadership. They, in contrast to the Nordic man, are without a real power of decision in conflicts of conscience. And so they are always cautious, never resolute. Their power of imagination is roving, unsteady. Creatively, they are best in the field of music. * * * In the description of all races we have continually drawn a comparison with the Nordic race, both as to bodily characteristics as well as to soul and mind. We do that for a definite reason. It is not because we wish to have merely some point of comparison. We draw this very comparison repeatedly because the Nordic is the race most strongly represented in Germany. Gunther in his study of German races attempts to estimate the proportion of the different races in the composition of our people. He arrives at the results shown in chart 8.

Nordic race about 50 per cent. Eastern race about 20 per cent. Dinaric race about 15 per cent. East Baltic race about 8 per cent. Phalic race about 5 per cent. Western race about 2 per cent. CHART 8. — Racial composition of the German people The principal ingredient of our people is, therefore, the Nordic race. That is not to say that half of our people are pure Nordic. All the aforementioned races, in fact, appear in mixtures in all parts of our fatherland. The circumstance, however, that the great part of our people is of Nordic descent justifies us in taking a Nordic standpoint when evaluating character and spirit, bodily structure and physical beauty. It also gives us the right to shape our legislation and to fashion our state according to the outlook on life of the Nordic man. Chapter III. Race Formation: Heredity and Environment After we have become acquainted with the German races we ask ourselves, now what really constitutes a race and how does nature produce such races. We called human races groups of individuals with the same heredity who continually produce their kind. One could also say the reverse, that living beings without the same hereditary are recognisable by the fact that their descendants are unlike the parents. On what basis do all these well known facts rest and what pertinent laws govern here? On this question the study of heredity or (as the scientists say) genetics gives us information. The foundations of the study of heredity are the laws which Johann Mendel (1822-1884) established after experiments with species of sweet peas, beans, and hawkweed. Mendel was born in a village in Austrian-Silesia, the son of a small farmer. Because of his exceptional mental gifts his parents sent him to the Gymnasium. He was unable, afterwards, to attend a university because he lacked money to do so. He entered, on that account, an Augustinian cloister. There he received the name Gregor, by which he is known in the scientific field. From here he was sent to the University of Vienna. He studied natural science. Then he became a teacher, later the abbot of a cloister. As a teacher he had opportunity for carrying on his well-known experiments in cross-breeding. The principal results were published in the years 1865 and 1869. By a few examples we will explain what the Mendelian laws really say. Suppose we cross two species of the Marvel of Peru with one another. Assume one has red blossoms, the other white blossoms. They are different, therefore, in one respect: the colour of the blossoms. The result of the crossing is presented in chart 9. All the offspring are rose-coloured. They occupy a middle position between both sides of the parent generation. A short explanation should be given here regarding the designations used for each succeeding generation. In cross- breeding experiments the parent generation is designated by the letter P. That is an abbreviation for the Latin word PARENTES = parents. For the succeeding generations the letter F is used. That is an abbreviation for the Latin word FILIVS = son or FILIA = daughter. The first succeeding generation is labelled F1, the second F2, and so forth. These designations are generally in use throughout the whole world. From the experiment described above we have become acquainted with the first Mendelian law. It states: The law of uniformity The members of the first succeeding generation (F1) of the two species differing in a single characteristic are all alike. CHART 9. — Crossing a red and white species of the marvel of Peru. In the first succeeding generation all offspring are uniformly rose-coloured We will now, as presented in chart 10, again cross any two of these hybrids (bastards). 

Now an entirely different picture presents itself. In the second succeeding generation (F2) we have a fourth of all the plants with red blossoms, one half with rose-coloured blossoms, and another fourth with white blossoms. This proportion naturally holds only when we are able to produce a sufficiently large number of offspring. We now have before us the second Mendelian law. It states: The law of segregation The second succeeding generation (F2) of two species differing in only one respect is not uniform as in the case of the first succeeding generation, but segregates itself into different forms according to a definite numerical proportion. And, in fact, the opposing characteristics of the parent generation (P) invariably reappear, each of them in a fourth of the offspring (F2), while the remaining half of the offspring (F2) are like the first succeeding generation (F1). If we cross these different types again we obtain the result presented in chart 11. CHART 10. — In the second succeeding generation offspring split up into red, rose, and white-coloured flowers in the proportion 1:2:1 respectively The crossing of the red-blossoming plants with one another produces only red-blossoming offspring. Likewise we get from white blossoming plants only white blossoming offspring. The red and white blossoming offspring of the bastards are, therefore, a pure species again because they continue to produce their kind. The rose blossoming offspring, on the contrary, continue to split into one fourth red, one half rose and one fourth white. They behave exactly like the first succeeding generation and therefore are bastards also. Both of these laws hold good not only for plants but also for animals and human beings. Let us take as an example the crossing of two definite species of hens. The one parent is dark feathered, the other light. As we must expect according to both Mendelian laws thus far mentioned, the first succeeding generation (F1) is uniform in colouring, in this case grey. CHART 11. — Red and white plants continue to have pure red and white offspring from the third generation on. The rose- coloured hybrids continue to split up according to the law of segregation The offspring of these bastards split into dark, grey, and light hens. The proportion is, as is to be expected, 1:2:1. The dark and the light hens continue to breed true. The grey hens, crossed with their own kind, always split up thereafter. It is not always the case, however, that the first succeeding generation, with respect to its characteristics, stands between the two parents. Suppose we cross a black-haired and a brown-haired dog with one another (chart 12). We should now expect mixed coloured offspring in the first subsequent generation (F1). That is not the case, however. All the animals are black- haired. The first Mendelian law has, however, kept its validity. For the animals are all uniform. Only the one characteristic (blackness of hair) has been stronger, the other (brownness of hair) subordinate. 

One calls the first characteristic determining or dominant (after the Latin word DOMINARI = to rule), the second subordinate or recessive (after the Latin word RECEDERE = to give way). According to what we have just learned we could assume that in the second generation of children (F2) of the dark bastards only dark offspring would come into being. That, however, is not the case. We have up to three-fourths black-haired dogs and up to a fourth again brown-haired animals. In fact, therefore, the second Mendelian law has also remained valid. The second generation undergoes a splitting up. A fourth is black-haired, as was to be expected. Two-fourths should be mixed-coloured, but are also black-haired because the blackness of hair is dominant. The remaining fourth is again brown-haired as was to be expected. CHART 12. — Crossing a black and brown dog. Black is dominant, therefore in the second succeeding generation 3/4 are black and 1/4 brown We have made a very important discovery here: the inherited characteristic can indeed be different from another. It need not always be apparent in externally visible characteristics, however. The hereditary picture is not always the same as the apparent picture. We have derived the two aforementioned Mendelian laws out of such plant and animal species as differ only in a single characteristic, that is to say, in the colour of blossoms or colour of feathers or colour of hair. Now there are, however, very many characteristics in the case of animals and plants. So it seldom happens that only one characteristic distinguishes two species from one another. In most cases there are two, three, or a great many such characteristics distinguishing two species from one another. Moreover, crossing experiments can also be made now with living beings having many characteristics, such as turtles, cows, and so forth. And so we have the third Mendelian law. It states: The law of independence All characteristics are transmitted independently from one another, so that new characteristics can appear. The characteristics long-haired brown and short-haired black need not always remain together, for instance, in such crossings. We can in crossing obtain quite the reverse characteristics, as long-haired black or short-haired brown. Here the following point must be made, derived mainly from the third Mendelian law. We know that characteristics are transmitted independently from one another. With men the many characteristics of body, mind, and soul are therefore also transmitted independently of one another. With a pure Nordic man both the characteristics of body as well as those of mind and soul are kept pure. There are, however, many races in the German people which have intermixed as we saw in the foregoing chapter. Now these races have transmitted characteristics of body, mind, and soul independently of one another. Therefore, a man who appears to be an Easterner externally need not necessarily possess the Eastern character, just as a Western man need not always possess a Western character. A Nordic nature can, therefore, very well belong to a man bodily of another race. In general, however, among a definite number of men externally Nordic, proportionately more will be Nordic in spirit and in soul than among as many men bodily of another race. We will appraise our comrades, in the last analysis according to their character and their performance. We see, therefore, what perplexing possibilities can arise if very many characteristics are present which can, in addition, be either predominant or recessive. For this reason it is understandable why many do not and will not believe in the laws of heredity. We, however, shape the life of our people and our legislation according to the verdicts of the teachings of genetics. Out of the laws of heredity we have learned something about the nature of races and have become acquainted with the significance of crossing races. Now we turn to the question of the formation of races. As the description of human races has shown, some races are rather closely related to each other. Such relationships appear even more strongly among animal and plant species. One must, therefore, assume that these races possess common ancestry at some place back along the line. This would signify that in the course of time various new races were formed out of an older type. Formerly it was assumed that there were only as many species on the earth as God had created in the beginning. The belief was also the conviction of scientists for a long time. And yet one finds today petrifactions of living beings that died out centuries ago. At first they were regarded as triflings of nature. Nevertheless when people began to deal with them seriously they made an important discovery. It showed that these petrifaction’s form a series which, from the oldest strata to the most recent, show an ever closer approach to the living types of today. The conclusion has been drawn that the types today have developed gradually out of older forms. This assumption is in fact generally accepted today after experiments have also demonstrated that race and consequently species transformations occur on the earth. The study which has to do with this question is called the study of evolution. Closely associated with it is the name of the Englishman Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Now what are the causes for species and race changes? Abstractly speaking, we could make two types of influences responsible for the creation of new races. These have to do with environmental influences for with changes of internal factors. We will see what there is to be said as to both possibilities. 

That the environment exercises a certain influence on living beings is known. It influences bodily size, form, colouring and so forth. It comprises variations in nurture, in temperature, changes in light intensity, and many others as well. Two sister pigs were nourished differently. One received little to eat. The other was fattened. After 199 days the badly nourished animal weighed only about one-seventh as much as the other as we can see from chart 13. In the case of two sister calves the weight of the underfed calf after two years was only about one-fourth that of the other. CHART 13. — Two sister hogs after being reared for 199 days. The underfed weighs 47 pounds, the well hog 340 pounds In an ordinary temperature the tail of the house mouse is on the average 68 millimetres long, with a lower temperature only 60 millimetres. In the same way changes in temperature produce changes in colour. Similar experiments have also been made in botany. Thus, for example, many plants put out longer sprouts in darkness than in lighter surroundings. By changing the temperature one can produce other colours of blossoms in the case of certain plants. There are two different coloured species of primroses. The one blooms red, the other white. If, before it blossoms out, a young plant of the red-blossoming species is placed in a higher temperature (35 degrees as over against 15 degrees) under certain conditions it blossoms out pure white. It corresponds exactly to the real white species. There are very man examples of such a transformation in the case of living beings as a result of external influences. We need only determine whether these transformations have a significance for the formation of the races, that is to say, whether the new characteristics are inheritable. To that end we must see what happens to the descendants of these transformed types. One can bring these badly and well nourished animals, referred to above, together for propagation. It is always important, naturally, that these animals be of same parentage: if possible, from the same little. The result is that the offspring of the badly nourished animals are exactly the same as those of the well nourished, provided conditions remain constant. Now and then someone believes he has discovered an exception. For the first offspring of the badly nourished animals were somewhat weaker than the others. But this would not evidence the fact that a new species had been produced as a result of environmental influences. If one’s physique is weakened by bad nourishment then he will not always be able to provide his offspring with the necessary means of nourishment. In this case, therefore, a stunted form can arise which is like the parents. Such differences which have been produced by the environment continue for many generations. The surroundings have not triumphed. The inheritance has been decisive. In other examples, also, the animals regain their former colours, form, and size under the influence of a normal environment. The following objection has been made to this conclusion: one should allow the environmental influences to operate for a longer time, through many succeeding generations. Then the changes would become hereditary. Experiments have also been made along this line. The tails of mice have been cut off for 22 successive generations. They keep their tails. The tails were not lost nor did they become a bit shorter. Just such unsuccessful results followed experiments with plants. If, for example, one returns the white blossoming primrose, which really belongs to the red-blossoming species, to its customary surroundings, then this plant, which has been producing white blossoms, will again produce red ones. The offspring always have only red blossoms. What we need to learn from these experiments is the following: In no instance up to this time have environmental influences brought about the formation of a new race. This is one more reason for our belief: A Jew both in Germany and in all other countries remains only a Jew. He can never change his race by centuries of residence with another people, as he often asserts, but just as often contradicts by his own actions. Now, for the other possibility of race formation. We can assume that new races, and thereby the next higher grade, the species, are determined by internal influences, by transformations or mutations within the germ cell. In order to be able to understand the whole thing we must first understand clearly how the biological inheritance is transmitted from parents to offspring. All living beings, plants, animals, men, consist of many little cells. Of special importance for hereditary are sex cells; that is to say the female egg and the male sperm. For out of their union comes the new living being. They must, therefore, transmit also the biological inheritance. Every cell, including the sex cells, consists of cell-plasm and the nucleus lying therein. At definite times little threads appear in the nucleus which can be strongly coloured with certain colours. Science, therefore, calls them chromosomes, which literally translated means carriers of colour. These chromosomes are the carriers of the biological inheritance, wherefore we prefer to call them the hereditary carriers. Every carrier contains a great many biological characteristics. After the union of egg and sperm the hereditary carriers separate length-wise. Half of the hereditary carriers from the egg cell unite with half of the hereditary carriers of the sperm cells to form the new cell out of which the new living being develops. In this way the biological inheritances from the father’s and the mother’s sides have been transmitted to the offspring. In reality the matter is not as simple as this description would indicate. Nevertheless the process of transmission in its main lines takes place in the manner described.

Now under some circumstances these hereditary carriers can undergo changes. They can become interchanged. They can add to or subtract from their length. Several clusters of hereditary carriers can remain in one cell. All these changes are enormously important. They actually bring about externally visible changes which are inheritable. In that way new races can appear. These changes, which are called mutations (after the Latin word MVTATIO = change), are not always a good thing for living beings. They often lead to damaging transformations. Above all sexual power is often lost. Also, externally stunted forms are frequent. In this case the process of selection sets in. Only that which is of value in the struggle for life remains permanent. We have seen therefore that the race is tied together biologically, and to be sure by the hereditary carriers in the sex cells. New biological characteristics, and therewith new races, can arise only through material changes in these hereditary carriers. The ordinary environmental influences cannot bring about such changes. Only internal changes produce inheritable changes. Inheritance is in the long run always victorious over environmental influences. All arguments and political demands which are founded on the belief in the power of environment are therefore false and weak. We have already said that many changes are damaging or unfavourable. We know of some cases in which injuries to the germ plasm have occurred. For example, injuries have come about because of X-rays, the misuse of alcohol, sexual diseases. This knowledge comes to us from experiments which have often meant the sacrifice of life itself. It is important for us to remove those injuries we know about from the heritage of our people. Chapter IV. Heredity and Race Fostering From the teaching of genetics we learn that the individual is inseparably bound to his ancestors by birth and heredity. In the same manner, however, he is also tied to his descendants. The individual is, so to say, only a connecting link in the long chain of generations. If we wish to use an analogy we can say: The individual may be compared to a wave in a great stream which flows out of the remotest past into the remotest future. The farther we trace these streams of generations back into the past, the more they converge into one main stream, until finally we reach the common source. This analogy makes it clear to us that all families and branches of a people have a common origin. They all have a unified heritage which is continued into the future by means of the heredity stream. The great heredity stream of a people can suffer many kinds of pollution and injury in its far journey. These can occur in two different ways. In the first place injuries can arise because diseased elements, which are inheritable, enter the blood-stream of a people. These must not be transmitted further if a people is to remain strong and sound. To prevent the spread of such diseased elements and to foster a sound blood-stream is the sense of our hereditary fosterings today. In the second place, the blood-stream of a people can be defiled by being mixed with blood that is essentially and racially foreign to it. Our fostering of race should prevent these pollutions. The fostering of heredity aims, therefore, to combat injuries which appear within the heredity stream of the folk. We have learned already that numerous inheritable factors of a bodily, mental, and spiritual sort are transmitted from man to man. Besides natural, sound hereditary factors, there are also, unfortunately, many diseased kinds. Although inheritable diseases could be carefully investigated and studied only after the laws of heredity became known, many diseases, so far as their hereditary courses are concerned, are already precisely known today. Some 400 of the 1000 mental diseases alone are definitely known to be inheritable. The inheritableness also extends, however, to diseases of body and soul. The most serious of the inheritable diseases are: congenital weak-mindedness, schizophrenia (mental lapses), lunacy (mental sickness), hereditary epilepsy, hereditary St. Vitus dance, hereditary blindness and deafness, and the serious hereditary malformations of the body, to which, among others, belong: congenital dislocation of the hips, clubfoot, harelip, wolf’s mouth, diseases of the blood, and the like. In addition there are hereditary diseases, some of a less serious nature, a part causing internal, organic maladies. Of the large number of such diseases the following may be cited here: abnormal number and shortness of fingers, flat and weak feet, so-called birthmarks, near and far-sightedness, squinting, cataract (clouding of the eyes’ lenses), as well as the factors causing: jaundice, obesity, cancer, and tuberculosis. The word hereditary is expressly used with some of the diseases enumerated. It suggests that the presence of these same diseases could also be due to something besides inheritance. For that is actually the case whenever the maladies are acquired by contagion or accident. Then they depend on environmental influences and therefore could not be hereditary at all, as we know. On the other hand it is to be observed, however, so far as hereditary diseases are concerned, that the external evidences of many of them can be removed by the skill of the physician, although they do not lose their hereditary character thereby. If, therefore, maladies such as dislocations of the hips, harelip, and wolf’s mouth, are remedied by surgical operations, they nevertheless continue to appear in succeeding generations. While acquired maladies need not be obstacles to marriage it is strongly recommended that men afflicted with hereditary maladies, even though they can be remedied perhaps by medical skill, abstain from having children. At this point we wish to add a word regarding inbreeding and the marriage of relatives. We know from the teachings of genetics that many hereditary characteristics have a concealed hereditary course. They are, therefore, in contrast to the dominant characteristics of the one parent, recessive. Now the recessive characteristic is retained in the blood of the generations that follow but is not apparent. Only when both parents possess such a recessive, inheritable characteristic does this particular hereditary characteristic reveal itself in the children. The greater part of the hereditary diseases have, in fact, this concealed process of transmission. The men who possess such a diseased, recessive characteristic in their heritage are sound, of course, but carry the bearer of the disease within them. Only when they marry a partner with the same hereditary factor does the hereditary disease appear in the children. By reason of common descent the members of one family or clan have a common heredity. By spreading hereditary diseases having a concealed hereditary course it can easily happen that 

such a disease belongs to the common heredity. In such a case a marriage between relatives would certainly produce diseased children. For this reason inbreeding and intermarrying are not advisable. Since diseases with concealed hereditary courses cannot be detected offhand in the case of individual men there is only one possibility of making sure about them: through careful study of kindred and through family fostering. Besides hereditary diseases there are germinal injuries which likewise affect successive generations. They can be called forth by misuse of alcohol and nicotine, by industrial poisons, radium and X-rays, and by sexual diseases. A large proportion of the idiots and epileptics, for example, owe their sad state to alcoholism and sexual diseases. Even criminal tendencies go back to hereditary diseases and germinal injuries. The more serious of the hereditary diseases, especially the mental diseases, make their carriers completely unsuited for living. They rob those so afflicted of the capacity to reason and the feeling of responsibility so that they become of little value to the community. The less worthy multiply without restraint and are continually spreading their hereditary sufferings abroad. We see that from the fact that in Germany the average number of children amounts to: 2.2 in the case of sound families, 3.5 in the case of weak-minded families, .9 in the case of criminal families. Thus the number of the less worthy rose from 10 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1880 to 40 in 1930. While the increase of the total population during this period ran to about 50 per cent., during the same period the less worthy increased by about 300 per cent., that is to say, about six times faster than the whole population. It is no wonder, therefore, that we in Germany today have to reckon with some 1,000,000 feeble-minded, 250,000 hereditary mental defectives, 90,000 epileptics and 40,000 hereditary bodily defectives. Most of these congenitally diseased and less worthy persons are completely unsuited for living. They cannot take care of themselves and must be maintained and cared for in institutions. This costs the state enormous sums yearly. And in this connection some figures might well be given. The outlay for an inmate of an institution for hereditary disease is eight times as high as it is for a sound person. Just about as much money is needed for an idiotic child as for four or five sound children. The instruction of a pupil for eight years costs about 1,000 marks, the educational outlay for a deaf mute about 20,000 marks. Altogether Germany pays every year about 1,200,000,000 marks to care for and support comrades afflicted with hereditary maladies. This enormous sum is lost so far as the fostering of the congenitally sound part of our people is concerned. How many sport places, baths, homesteads, kindergartens could have been built with this money, if people during the past decades had not observed without doing anything about it the threat to our people by those less worthy. Whoever has once visited an institution for incurable diseases feels a deep sense of guilt for these unfortunate creatures who were called into life in defiance of all true humanitarianism. Out of a real humanitarianism for the afflicted and the strongest feeling of responsibility to our people as a whole the National Socialist government has taken legal steps to prevent a further, unrestricted spreading of the more serious hereditary diseases. The most important laws dealing with this problem of hereditary are: The law for preventing the increase of incurable diseases of July 14, 1933; The law against dangerous and habitual criminals of November 24, 1933; The law for preserving the hereditary soundness of the German people (Healthy marriage law) of October 26, 1935; The law for preventing the increase of hereditary diseases prescribes the voluntary and also compulsory sterilisation of those persons who, in consequence of serious hereditary diseases, may, as is with great probability to be expected, according to the experiences of the medical profession, cause their descendants to suffer serious bodily and mental harm. The great feeling of responsibility of the legislator is shown in that the law’s application is limited to the most serious hereditary diseases, and in the inclusion of safety measures to prevent any misuse of the law. The law against dangerous criminals provides for the castration of serious moral offenders in the interest of security and progress. It is to be regarded as a health measure which aims to free the criminal from his perverted inclinations. In that way many serious crimes will be prevented in the future. The sound marriage law forbids marriages in those cases where one of the parents has a dangerous contagious disease (sex disease, tuberculosis, and so forth), or suffers from mental derangement, or is afflicted with an hereditary disease which suggests the advisability of sterilization. The hereditary health legislation of the Third Reich has been opposed in different quarters most vigorously. Some would deny the state the right to interfere with the personal freedom of a man in this manner. the reply to that is that, on the one hand, the law is restricted solely to the most serious cases, and on the other, that the surgical operations are not so dangerous that the persons concerned suffer any kind of damage whatever. The moral basis for these measures designed to wipe out hereditary defects and to prevent further mischief is really founded on a deep humanitarianism. For it is better and more humanitarian to prevent widespread misery, which those afflicted with hereditary diseases transmit to others, than to pity the unfortunates later and to burden the community with them. Moreover it is a natural right of the community to protect itself against the threat of the individual. Everywhere in nature there are safety measures of this kind, established in the interest of the superior whole. The existence of the individual is of no importance whatever in this connection. Have mind and understanding been given to man in order that he may disregard such natural laws? Or is it not rather the task of the human mind to perceive these natural laws and to make use of them in a manner worthy of a man? We believe the latter. The hereditary welfare measures heretofore explained are for the purpose of preventing the further spread of existing hereditary defects and gradually doing away with them altogether. A completely effective welfare program of this kind is not sufficient, however. The selection and fostering of the sound part of our people must go along with the wiping out of hereditary defects. Along this line great efforts and accomplishments on the part of the National Socialist state are to be noted. The marked expansion of health activities, the fostering of bodily exercises, well planned homesteading activities show us how much emphasis is being laid upon the fostering of sound blood. The new social and economic regulations of the past

few years also serve the high purpose of keeping our working population sound and happy. The Winter Help Work with its division Mother and child, the Labor Front with its bureau Beauty of work and Strength through joy function in the same direction. And numerous other examples could be given to show the effort being made to develop the sound part of our people. More important than all these measures, however, is the selective process which today as formerly is being applied by the National Socialist movement. The appeal to the race pride of our people has led the Germans into our movement as fighters and continues to be decisive for the recruiting of the future. Not money and possessions, not name and parentage are the things most esteemed, but only attainment and readiness to take an active part. These latter qualities, however, are to be found in all ranks and classes of the people. A real socialistic process of selection leads those who have the requisite capacity and are called for the purpose to the highest positions in the party and the state. The fighting period, by reason of its daily sacrifice of blood and goods, naturally brought with it the severest process of selection. Today the process of selection must take place along other lines. The numerous schools for leaders, especially the Ordensburgen and the Adolf Hitler schools, have taken over these tasks. Here character, willingness to serve the community, power of decision, ability to do are tested as they once were during the fighting period. The fundamental principle of the socialistic process of selection likewise applies here. As stated in the announcements regarding the Adolf Hitler schools: School training is gratuitous, and further: Every career within the party and the state stands open to the Adolf Hitler scholar after the successful completion of his course. By these measures the German people will always be certain of having a suitable supply of leaders. A new nobility, the nobility of accomplishment and work, will guarantee the future of folk and Reich. Intermarrying with races of foreign blood is as dangerous for the continuance and existence of a people as inheritable internal defects. The German people have direct contact only with one type of foreign people: with the Jews. So for us fostering race is one and the same thing as a defensive warfare against mind and blood contamination by the Jews. The extent to which Germans and Jews cross each other’s paths scarcely needs to be presented today. The Jewish hegemony in the cultural and intellectual life of the last few decades has brought the disrupting and disturbing character of this people to the attention of all Germans. The first opposition measures of the National Socialists must, therefore, aim to remove the Jews from the cultural and economic life of our folk. Numerous laws have laid the basis for this. All these laws cannot be enumerated here. Only the most important will be noted: The Law for the restoration of the civil service of April 7, 1933 is the first to contain the Aryan clause and exclude the Jews from the German civil service. From here on the cleansing process has quickly extended to all other spheres of life, to economic and cultural organizations, the professions, motion pictures, theater and press. Special mention should be made of the Law regarding the acquisition and loss of citizenship by naturalization of July 14, 1933. It gives the Reich the possibility of declaring invalid undesirable nationalizations which occurred during the period of the great immigration of eastern Jews between November 9, 1918 and January 20, 1933. The Inheritance law of September 29, 1933 excludes the Jews from German soil by stipulating that a peasant can only be one who is of German blood. That the Military defense law of May 21, 1935 and the Labor service law of October 15, 1935 exclude the Jews from active service to the nation is self-evident. Finally, the Citizenship law of October 15, 1935 deprives the Jews of their citizenship. They are, to be sure, members of the German Reich, but not citizens. The Jews are by this law strictly separated from the German people as a distinct group. The number of Jews in the German Reich is generally given as 500,000. this figure includes, however, only Jews of the Mosaic faith. The Jew has always attempted to disguise himself by changing his name and faith so that the proportion of Jews is actually much higher. An official publication estimates that the number of real Jews not of the Mosaic faith, is about 300,000, and that the hybrids number about 775,000. The number of those not having German blood in the German Reich would, according to this report, amount to almost 1,555,000. This figure reveals the extent of the Jewish invasion into our folk. At the same time the large number of hybrids is a sad indication of the absence of racial instincts in the past. Racial pride and a feeling of racial shame were first re-awakened by National Socialism. But racial intermixings have also been forbidden legally. The Law for the protection of German blood and of German pride of October 15, 1935 imposes very severe punishments upon those of German blood who unite with foreign races, and states precisely what proportion of non-German blood causes a person to lose his status as a German. Anyone belonging to a non-German or related race is considered a member of a foreign race according to law and according to general usage. For this reason the racial outlook on life of National Socialism is frequently misunderstood. People insist on finding in this racial outlook on life haughtiness and intolerance. To do so is fundamentally false, however. We reject the idea of race-mixing first, because the hybrid produced by the mixing is a sacrifice to such a disregard of nature. For During his life he is a split personality in his racial makeup. Without a home he stands between two peoples and does not know in his soul whether he belongs to the one or to the other. In short, he is an unfortunate, restless creature. In the second place we believe that races receive their different natures in order to develop them and not to mix them. In this connection we have already stated that we see in racial differences no real differences in quality, but rather differences in kind. Therefore we will preserve the race of Germans in its true character and guard it against false mixing. The constructive tasks of race fostering now consist in injecting the racial character of our folk into all spheres of life. Culture and art can only be the real possession of the nation when these are the expression of our racial character. Moreover, the capacity of the German man to achieve economically is greatest when the economic form is racially adapted to men. The National Socialist movement has quickly gained the victory in this sphere too because its structure, internally and externally, corresponds to the heroic conception of life and the racial character of the German people. 

Population Policy Wiping out of the less worthy and selection of the best are the means for raising and maintaining the racial values of our people. Selection, however, is possible only when a sufficiently large number of persons is at hand. Therefore, it is the duty of the leaders of a people who are conscious of their responsibility to be concerned about having as large a population as possible. This is the objective of our population policy. Fostering heredity and population policy obviously work hand in hand to produce a quantitative as well as qualitative increase in population. The state has not always values a growing people. In centuries past, because of mass emigration, and because of the sale of soldiers to foreign rulers, the condition of our people had been weakened considerably. A people which feels strong and alive and knows that it is called upon to perform a task in the world must, however, possess the determination to have a steady growth. For standing still is the beginning of retrogression. Growth, standing still or retrogression of a people express themselves in the proportion of births to deaths. If the number of births exceeds the number of deaths, a real population growth occurs; if the reverse takes place, a people is threatened with death. The German people at the moment is no longer a growing folk. If its birth-rate remains unchanged it is threatened with slow extinction. This seems at first to be contradicted by the fact that the population of the German Reich has risen from 62.6 million in 1925 to 65.3 million in 1933. Before we draw snap conclusions from this we need to deal somewhat more thoroughly with the state of our population policy. If we exclude from the great stream of generations the one now living, we could compare the momentary condition of a people to a lake. The lake is fed by a stream which adds fresh water continually. Moreover, it has an outlet through which the water flows out again. In our picture births are the stream which continually adds new, fresh blood; deaths are the outflow which carries away blood that has been used up and aged. If more water flows into the lake than flows out, the level of the water rises, the lake grows. The same result may be obtained, however, by damming up the outflow. For a time the level of the water rises until finally the weight of the dammed up masses of water breaks the dam, and the level of the water recedes again to the point where it is regulated by normal intake and outflow. The growth of the lake was therefore deceiving, no real natural growth. The same phenomenon takes place in the life of peoples. A damming up of devitalised blood can come about because a part of the people remains alive longer. Nevertheless the aged inevitably die too. Then a higher number of deaths balances the rise of the population again. The population increase of the German Reich during the past decade, as mentioned above, is no real growth. It is due to a damming up of old blood. This is proved by the death figures which sank from 17.4 per thousand to 10.8. The consequence is an exceptional growth in the higher age brackets. As over against 1910, the 45-50 age category increased about 37 per cent.; the 55-60 age category about 38 per cent.; and the 65 age category about 25 per cent. The births, on the contrary, have greatly decreased. In 1901, with a population of 57 million at that time, the number of children born amounted to 2,032,000. In 1932, however, in spite of a population of 65 millions, there were only 978,000 children. That indicates that the number of births fell from 37.7 per thousand to 15.1. The marked growth in the higher age brackets and the decrease in the birth rate at the same time has brought about very serious changes in the age structure of our people. In from one to two decades the higher age classes are more numerously represented than the younger. This has paved the way for the superannuation of our people. The social and economic consequences of this superannuation will place a burden upon coming generations. If a numerically weak body of individuals that are capable of working have to support a large number of people incapable of working, the social cost is greater than in the normal case. The terrifying decline in the birth rate is plainly evident especially in the large cities. Berlin, for example, had in 1933 only 45 births for every thousand women of child-bearing age, whereas the average for the Reich was 99. If Berlin did not have any addition from the Reich, then, after 150 years, only about 150,000 of its 4,000,000 inhabitants would remain (chart 14). Similar conditions exist throughout the whole Reich. To keep our population figure as it is we need 3.4 births per family. The actual figure in 1933, however, was only 2.2. If this figure should not change our population would shrink to 47 millions by the end of this century and fifty years later to about 25 millions. Then the German people could no longer maintain their position in the world and would sink into insignificance. During the past few decades those in responsible positions have shown little concern about the decline of the German population. In fact people thought that the threatened extinction of our people in consequence of the lowering birth rate was an entirely natural process. Some were of the opinion that peoples, like persons, pass through periods of childhood, youth and maturity only to grow old and finally die. This comparison of the life of a people to the life of a person in altogether false, however. For fundamentally different biological conditions apply in the two cases. Man receives at birth the requisite store of life energy for the life journey. He cannot replenish this, but must die after the store is exhausted. It is entirely different in the life of a people. A people can supplement and renew itself indefinitely by propagation through the family. Its living energy need not therefore expire, if its individual members do not wish to have that happen. There is no such thing as the inevitable decline of a people. Occasionally one also finds the contrary opinion represented which assumes that a people can never die. That is just as false as the belief in the inevitable death of a people. It is true that, with the present distribution of the population, there no longer exists territory which is uninhabited because of the dying out of a people. For a territory with too small a population inevitably attracts persons from overpopulated areas. In this way the population of a territory can be maintained. But a people with a low birth rate lose their original character by such an infiltration of foreigners until, in the end, they are completely overwhelmed by them. 

So it was in ancient Greece as in ancient Rome. The present population of Italy and Greece is different in character from that of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It has acquired its new appearance today through infiltration. The same process is repeating itself before our eyes in France. Here the declining birth rate has already continued for more than 100 years. Coloured people stream into the southern part of France from the African colonies and have already given certain cities an African appearance. Already 15 per cent. of the inhabitants of France today are of foreign blood. If this development continues in a few decades France will no longer be the cultural nation of old. The German people would also be threatened by an infiltration of foreigners if, as a result of the declining birth rate, a checking of population growth should occur. The distribution of the population among the three great peoples of Europe shows plainly that our Slavic neighbours would impose their growing population forcibly upon the less populated regions. CHART 14. — The population of Berlin in 1930 and in 2080 if no immigration from outside occurs to change the present rate of population increase Year Latins Germans Slavs 1810 34 percent 31 percent 35 percent 1910 24 percent 34 percent 42 percent 1930 24 percent 30 percent 46 percent 1960 22 percent 27 percent 51 percent The causes for declining births among Germans are twofold: internal, non-material; and external, material. The internal, non-material causes are traceable to the mental attitude of the past. This state of mind placed the individual at the center of its thinking and disassociated him from the community. It gave him the right to shape his life with absolute freedom, according to the dictates of reason. With most men, however, reason does not go much beyond comfort. Now, according to the views of this period, freedom and comfort would be greatly jeopardized by offspring. Therefore people gave up the idea of having children or limited their number. This superficial and irresponsible attitude of mind was most pronounced in the larger cities where at first a two child system came into fashion and was finally transformed into a no child system. The automobile or a lap dog requiring little work took the place of the child. That these non-material reasons were more important than economic causes is evident from the fact that the smallest number of children were to be found right in the well-to-do circles. Nevertheless economic considerations also may have contributed their share to the decline of births. The opinion was still wide-spread that overpopulation increased unemployment and limited the well being of the individual. Nevertheless the situation is exactly the reverse fundamentally, as a moment’s reflection shows. A large number of children consume more than a smaller number. It gives all callings more work and bread for that reason. The production of goods rises and with it the well being also. To be sure the economic benefits of a goodly supply of children works at first solely to the advantage of the entire community. The individual, who did not regard himself as being responsible to the community, would not be influenced by such a consideration. Corresponding to the twofold character of the reasons for the decline of births there are also two ways of reawakening the joy that comes from births: educational and economic measures. National Socialism has proceed along both lines. Its outlook on life gives man once again a feeling of responsibility toward the community and shows him that the highest purpose in life is service to the people. In converting the German people to this belief in the community National Socialism also removes the spiritual causes for the decline of births. The high calling of motherhood has once again become the natural task and accomplishment of every sound woman. A large family of children is again a mark of distinction before the whole nation. The National League of Large Families functions expressly to protect and foster large families. Economic relief depends primarily upon the general improvement of economic conditions. Beyond that, additional help can be provided by lowering taxes, by supplementary assistance in caring for large families, and by marriage loans for those wishing to found new families. What sums are being devoted to this purpose can be seen in the case of marriage loans. From August 1933 to January 30, 1937 there were 700,000 marriage loans granted amounting to 420 million marks. The measures of the National Socialist state have not been unfruitful. The number of marriages rose from 517,000 in 1932 to 639,000 in 1933; 739,000 in 1934; and 651,000 in 1935. The number of births has risen correspondingly. The number of births in 1933 was 971,174; in 1934 the figure was 1,198,350; in 1935 it was 1,261,273. That is an increase from 14.7 to 18.9 births per thousand. In spite of this gratifying increase in births the number needed for maintaining the present statues of our people has not yet been reached. The measures relative to population policy must go on making all Germans aware of these facts. For all the efforts and anxieties for the future of the nation and state will be permanently successful only in case our people lives on forever, from century to century.

Man and Earth From all we have learned so far we can see that the fate of a people is determined primarily by its manpower. The biological forces are decisive for its maintenance. Many peoples who have done great things in the past have already disappeared from the face of the earth because they died out on account of a decline of births. A growing population alone guarantees the future life of a people and its lasting permanence. The racial structure of peoples, however, determines the form their community life takes. Art and science, economy and culture are developed by peoples according to their racial character. Even the kind of political leadership and the form of the state are conditioned by the character of the race. The historical accomplishments as well as the present life of a people are primarily determined by blood. On the other hand territory is not without its influence on the life of a people. Its geographical situation in the world, whether on the ocean or other means of communication, its relations to the territory of neighbouring peoples affect deeply the course of political events. Its soil provides nourishment and possibilities for work. Treasures of the soil, raw materials, and climatic conditions influence the cultural and economic life, fostering or hampering it. The life of the state develops out of the harmony of man and land. For a state exists only where people and territory are forever bound together. During the course of history the people’s consciousness of homeland arose, and conferred upon territory, in addition to positive, material values, spiritual and idealistic ones as well. Certain ideologies would attribute an excessive and exclusive significance to the influence of territory upon political events. That is just as erroneous, certainly, as it is to leave all territorial suppositions out of consideration. It still remains true that men make history. But statesmen are comparable to artists. As the artist adapts the form and style of his artistic work to the peculiarities of the material used, so, also, do real statesmen, in the formation of their policies, proceed from things as they are, racially and territorially. Their greatness and their achievements depend upon their ability to recognise these gifts of nature rightly and to use them. Attachment to the soil is naturally not equally strong and deep in the case of all peoples. The German people has distinguished itself from earliest times by reason of a special attachment to its territory. Only when racial contamination threatened to suffocate the living and unique forces of the German people could those powers which were striving to uproot the German people gain ground. To this end the spiritual values of the soil were the first to be disturbed. The love of homeland was destroyed and made ridiculous. A world citizenship with a supernational imprint was presented as the goal worthiest to strive for. Then the agricultural basis of our economic life was also attacked. Ideas foreign to our people spread among German economic leaders and took away from our productive working forces a consciousness of the national basis of their work. Because of this the German people became more and more dependent economically upon foreign countries. We experienced the consequences of this in the World War. Because Germany was cut off from its foreign sources of food supplies by the blockade, our people, unbeaten from the military point of view, finally had to stack their weapons and, in consequence of the lack of economic freedom, undergo the loss of political freedom too. Moreover, by uprooting the German economy the way was paved for unrestricted financial domination by the international Jews. The once flourishing, firmly established German economy was transformed into a heap of ruins. An enormous army of unemployed was the outward indication of the unceasing decline. National Socialism has now re-established the natural order of things in the economic sphere. It has restored the creative forces of our people and made the resources and products of our own territory the basis of the German economy. Even today, after only a few years, the success of this new economic way of thinking is evident. The army of unemployed, numbering millions, has disappeared. The German economy has experienced a new upward swing. The ever-changing relations between man and earth, people and territory are revealed externally in a far reaching transformation of the original character of the land. In century-long, trying struggles, steppes, forests, swamps and heaths, which at one time covered the whole of Germany, have been remade into the present areas of cultivation. With the development of cultural and economic life there arose successively the farm, city, and industrial districts. These areas, in layout and partitioning, are closely related to the attitudes of life of our people. The German territory has received, thereby, a typical German imprint, which already distinguishes it from the territories of other peoples. Chapter VII. The German Territory By German territory we mean every region of central Europe which is inhabited by Germans in more or less permanent settlements and has received its cultural imprint from the German people. This territory includes the heart of Europe. It is surrounded by lands which, in comparison to Germany, are European rim states, because they are either surrounded on three sides by water or by uninhabited regions. The location of the German territory in the centre of Europe has influenced tremendously the historical fate of our people. For all spiritual and political movements of Europe had to encounter on another on German soil. For many centuries it was the centre of conflict for spiritual movements from the east and west, north and south. Here the spirit of north and south struggled against each other during the Thirty Years’ War. During the last century our people had to struggle with the ideas of western liberalism and eastern Bolshevism. Moreover, all kinds of warlike attacks threatening to destroy the very life and culture of the European continent had to be parried continually on German soil. Thus the Avars were overcome on the Danube in 735, the Magyars at Riade and Augsburg in 933 and 955, the Mongols at Liegnitz in 1241, and the Turks near Vienna in 1683. The German people have always been able to fulfill the all-European task assigned to them by their central European location. Furthermore, the German territory by reason of its central location was exposed from the very beginning to the pressure of its neighbors. Since they were on the rim of Europe, as already explained, they were forced to direct all their efforts for expansion and growth against German territory (chart 15). 

The history of the German people is the story of innumerable wars in defense of its territory. On the other hand the central position of the German territory also brought with it certain advantages. By reason of contacts with almost all the peoples of Europe, large and small, it was possible to build up an active cultural and economic exchange. The German people became thereby the medium of cultural and economic interaction. Traces of Germany’s philosophy and outlook on life have, as a result, spread far beyond the borders of our frontiers. Many lesser peoples have received their cultural and spiritual standards from the disinterested leadership of the German people. Today, even in cases where peoples consciously hold themselves aloof from Germans, the historical influence of the German people cannot be denied. The position of the German territory in the midst of 25 foreign peoples has, therefore, both its light and its dark sides. For a German people which is torn to pieces and a Reich that lacks unity such a position must necessarily always seem to be a curse. For a Reich which is united, forcefully led, and strong, it signifies, on the contrary, a blessing. CHART 15. — The central position of the German Reich One consequence of its central European location is the threefold form which the German territory takes today. In addition to the political area of the German Reich there is a German population area and a cultural area. The German Reich, the political area of the German people, includes only a small part of the German territory. Since the downfall of the emperor’s power, as it was during the middle ages, the political area of the Reich has become smaller and more circumscribed. Several German states have broken away from the Reich and part of them have become completely estranged from the German people. Moreover some parts of the Reich have been seized by foreign peoples (chart 16). CHART 16. — The threefold character of the German territory The German population area extends as far as the German tongue wags. It extends far beyond the political frontiers of our Reich and includes all German states as well as the compact German population areas which are in the possession of non- German states. The present German population area has developed from small beginnings during the course of the centuries. Handbook For Schooling The Hitler Youth 16 

In spite of all attempts by foreign peoples to win over the German population area, it has been able, with the exception of a few minor losses, to preserve its original boundaries. This is an indication of the strong vitality and unbending will of the German people. Millions of German comrades along the frontiers of the Reich are daily giving up goods and property, blood and life for the sake of the German population area. The German culture area extends even father, beyond the German population area toward the east. It also includes lands of non-German peoples who, however, have received their historical consciousness, their culture, and their national character from Germans. In this German culture area traces of German life are recognisable everywhere. German language, German art, and German law are present everywhere throughout the German culture area. Many large islands of Germans lie scattered about in it. They preserve intact, even today, the living bond between the German culture area and the Germans themselves. Chapter VIII. The German Population Area The threefold character of the German territory is the consequence of our people’s ever changing past. If we wish to understand rightly the existing distribution of the German political, settlement, and culture areas, we must go back to the very beginning of our history. Our earliest forefathers were the Norsemen of the early stone age (2500-1800 B.C.). After the ice, which originally covered a large part of Europe, had worked its way back on to the mountains, the Norsemen descended into the western regions along the East Sea. For many thousands of years they dwelt in southern Sweden, in Denmark, and northern Germany. The Norsemen developed a high agrarian culture. They knew husbandry, cattle raising and seafaring. They set up permanent monuments to their dead which are known to us as the giant tombs of the Luneburg heath or the Oldenburg land. The Norsemen dwelt in high gabled, wooden houses which are very similar to those of our farmers today. The household furnishings consisted of beds, cupboards, benches, and other articles. Beautifully formed vessels and tools carved out of wood were in use. The Norsemen made their clothing out of linen materials and twill. They knew how to tan the finest leather out of animal hides. Their artistic sense was highly developed. It showed itself very clearly in their beautiful stone weapons, the dagger and the battle axe. The Norsemen of the early stone age were energetic, well developed men of the Nordic and Phalic races. They multiplied very rapidly so that a time finally came when their arable land was no longer sufficient for all. The youth, the pith of the folk, had to go forth in order to acquire new land. The Norsemen wandered away along many routes following every direction under the sun. They settled in neighbouring and far distant regions inhabited by foreign races. In only a few cases was it possible for them to preserve their racial character. Frequently they mixed with the natives and formed new peoples such as the Celts, Illyrians, and so on. In some cases, however, they acquired, almost unmixed, new territories and created there as Indo- Iranians, Greeks, and Romans, the highly developed cultures of antiquity. The cultural values and the racial traits of the Norsemen were spread throughout Europe in the course of these wanderings. The unity of former times is still evident today in the languages of most European peoples. Science has grouped these people together under the name of Indo-Germans (chart 17). CHART 17. —

The culture of Europe and particularly that of antiquity, as well as all that is today based thereon, does not come therefore out of the east. Its origin lies in the north, to a considerable extent on German soil. At the conclusion of the Indo-Germanic wanderings the Nordic and Phalic Norsemen of the early stone age united to form in their homeland a people unified internally and externally: the Germans. The bronze age (1800-800 B.C.) brought German culture to a flourishing state and also the first acquisitions of land by the Germans on the continent. The heritage of their forefathers was developed still further and to an unprecedented degree by the Germans. Land cultivation, animal husbandry, and seafaring experienced a great upward swing. Objects of use, clothing, and weapons were refined. Weapons which are objects of wonder even today were created out of gold, amber and bronze, the first metal. Fighting and sports were encouraged on all sides. Music and art also flourished to a high degree. All in all the bronze age presented such a magnificent picture of the cultural development of the Germans that it gave rise to the expression golden age of the Germans. Natural catastrophes, apparently spring floods along the coast of the North Sea, suddenly produced a great need for land among the Germans. The rapidly growing people was forced to decamp and take up new land. Constantly struggling with their neighbours they spread out unceasingly. They pushed across the Weser and Oder. By the end of the bronze age they had reached the lower Rhine in the west, the mouth of the Vistula in the east, and the mountain ranges of central Germany in the south (chart 18). CHART 18. — The Germanic territory The iron age (800-50 B.C.) followed the golden age. It did not derive its name solely from the new material, iron, which now came into use. But the name also signified that now a real iron age had emerged full of fighting and tussling for new land. Nevertheless German culture showed further progress even during this hard time. The handicrafts and especially the art of forging blossomed forth, to which the new weapons, swords, daggers and spears bear witness. The raising of horses and the building of wagons attained a high degree of perfection, thereby giving for the first time the possibility of great advances in farming. Once again youth was forced to stride out after new land. A climatic disturbance in the western part of the East Sea region reduced the productive capacity of the greatly overpopulated land. Food for man and beast no longer sufficed. In long trains the heavy wagons of the peasants once again rolled out of the homeland. In great battles and continual fighting the young peasants were obliged to force their way into new lands. This time they spread out over an enormous area. The greatest expansion took place toward the east. From the coast of the German East Sea branches of Germans pressed across East Prussia, the interior of Poland, and southward along the rivers as far as the Black Sea. Their numbers were so weakened, however, in the course of numerous battles, that they were unable to establish themselves in south Russia and were absorbed by foreign peoples. Groups of Germans from Denmark and south Sweden wandered into the region vacated along the East Sea. They spread or rather worked their way forward as far as the Sudeten. The western Germans went forth after new land too. They advanced across the lower Rhine to south Holland and Belgium and pressed on along the Rhine as far as the Rhine- Danube-Winkel. The iron age had, in this way, brought about a tremendous enlargement of the German territory. It was now bounded on the continent by the line Flanders-south Holland-the upper Rhine-Danube-Carpathians-Bug-Memel. In Handbook For Schooling The Hitler Youth 18 

consequence of this great expansion the German people, up to this unified and compact, assumed the form of numerous branches which we classify as north Germans in Scandinavia, east Germans east of the Elbe, and west Germans to the west. The age of the Romans (50 B.C.-375 A.D.) which succeeded the iron age is replete with countless struggles of Germans with the Roman Empire which was powerful at that time. The splitting up of the German people into branches now proved to be especially disadvantageous. For all the successes of the Romans, even though they were only temporary, are traceable back to the disunited, defensive struggles of the Germanic branches. Nevertheless the Romans were unable to conquer the core of the German territory, the Germany of today. In the great and decisive battle in the Teutoburg Forest (9 A.D.) the west Germans under the leadership of Armin were victorious over a powerful Roman army. This army was completely destroyed and Germany was preserved for all time from the fate of Romanisation. The frontiers of the German territory in the west and south-west remained almost unchanged. In the east, however, a powerful expansion took place once more. East Germans, Goths and Gepidae pushed out from the region between the Vistula and the Memel across Poland toward south Russia to the Black Sea and the lower Danube. Here they separated into eastern and western groups. The east Goths spread out from southern Russia to the east and north. They founded a powerful empire which, under King Hermanarich, united all the land between the Ural mountains, the East Sea and the Black Sea. West Goths and Gepidae moved up the Danube and in a similar manner created a great empire between the Danube and the Carpathians which was able to withstand the onslaughts of the Romans. The Marcomanni forced their way into the territory of the Sudetens and likewise established an empire which gave the Romans a great deal of trouble. By the end of the Roman period, therefore, the Germans had taken possession of all the land between the Urals, the Black Sea, the Danube, and the Rhine. The period of Germanic migrations (375-1000 A.D.) is the heroic age of the Germans. The invasion of Mongolian hordes from the far distant steppes of the east set the east Germans in movements. Giving way before this pressure they abandoned their old homeland and turned westward. After tough assaults they overflowed the boundary walls and streamed into the Roman Empire which fell to pieces under this onslaught. Some of the Germanic branches succeeded in winning new land out of the territory of the old Roman Empire and in building up great kingdoms beneath the southern sun. The Vandals erected an empire in north Africa, the west Goths in Spain, the east Goths and Lombards in Italy, and the Burgundians on the soil of southern France. These kingdoms could not last long however, for the Germans constituted only a thin layer of leaders above the older peoples and were gradually extirpated in the course of constant strife (chart 19). CHART 19. — The Germans bring about the unity of Europe Once again, some centuries later, another stream of Germanic peoples poured out over Europe. This time it was the north German branch, known as Normans, Vikings and Varangians. The Normans, aboard bold dragon-ships, pushed as far as the Mediterranean and settled down on its shores. They established states in southern Italy and in Antioch, as well as in northwestern France and southern England. While the Vikings and Normans wandered about over western Europe, the Varangians pushed across the East Sea onto the continent, proceeded with their ships downstream to the Black Sea, and even 

appeared before Byzantium, the capital of the eastern Roman Empire. In that part of present day Russia, to which they gave their name, they established a powerful Varangian Empire. The Varangians, therefore, overran Europe from the east. The Germanic territory had, during the period of the migrations, spread out over all Europe. The political significance of this lies, not only in the fact that for once the peoples of Europe were refreshed with Nordic-German blood and the common basis of western culture was strengthened, but also in the fact that through Germans Europe achieved unity for the first time. Whereas the Roman Empire had not pushed beyond the limits of the Rhine and Danube and did not include all of central and eastern Europe, the Germans flooded Europe from the Urals to Gibraltar, from the North Cape to Constantinople. Europe, as a cultural and spiritual unity, is therefore the work of the Germans. The west German branches had not participated in the great migrations. They remained in their old homesteads, spreading out westward, however, over the Ardennes and the Vosges. One of the west German branches, the French, founded an empire in western and central Europe, which, after long continued struggles, also included the remaining Germanic branches on the continent. About the year 900 this empire of the French split into an eastern and western empire. From the eastern empire emerged the German Reich. Its eastern boundaries coincided with the frontiers of the territory thickly populated by Germans and extended along the line of the Elbe-Saale-Bohemian Forest-Enns. Its western limits, after fluctuating back and forth, finally followed the line separating Germans and Romans. Small territories belonging to the Romans were added to the Reich, while the northwest tip of the German region remained with France. During the succeeding centuries the branches of the Eastern Empire — Frisians, Saxons, Frankonians, Thuringians, Swabians and Bavarians — merged to form the German people, a people that blossomed forth mightily and governed the course of history throughout the middle ages. The greatest accomplishment of the German people was the winning back, during the middle ages, of the eastern territory between the Elbe and the Vistula. After the migration of the east Germans, Slavic tribes pushed their way into this territory. They shared the land with the hardy remnants of Germanic settlers who had remained on the land. The colonisation movement was first taken hold of by the Bavarians. In the course of tough struggles with mountains and forests they spread out along the Danube to the southeast under the bold leadership of the Babenbergers. Slowly they forced their way high up into the valleys of the Alps and the Bohemian primeval forest. These regions were for the most part uninhabited, so that here the acquisition of land could proceed peacefully. And, in this way, the Germans won the central and eastern Alps, the Danube region as far as Pressburg, and the southern interior of the Bohemian basin. To be sure the Bavarians in their thrust towards the south and southeast found exceptional support from the German Kaiser, since the territory acquired cleared the way to Italy. Thus the oldest settlements of the Reich came into being, the Austrian, Styrian, Carinthian and Krain districts. They have remained for all times the southeastern outposts of the Germans. After the dying out of the Babenbergers (in 1156) the new districts were separated from the Bavarian motherland as independent duchies. The propelling forces of the homeland were thereby cut off and the southeastern movement came to a standstill. In the northeast, along the Elbe and Saale, special districts were set up to protect the German frontiers and to give the Reich military security. Hermann Billung administered the northern district. Count Gero the central one, and feudal counts of the king administered the one in the south, the Sorbische Mark. Since there was still enough land for pasturage and cultivation within the German Reich, these special districts remained purely military areas at first populated by Slavs. So long as the German Kaiser, who was of Saxon parentage, focused his attention primarily on the internal building up of the Reich and, therefore, on the security of the frontiers, peace and order reigned in those districts and the neighboring territories of the Slavs. When, however, Emperor Otto II suffered a defeat in Italy and, in consequence of incessant fighting around Italy, the Reich became weak, the Slavic tribes revolted in the 982 in order to shake off the hated German over-lordship. The German towns and settlements along the frontiers of these districts were destroyed and all the Germans massacred. Only with the greatest difficulty was it possible to bring the onslaught of the Slavs along the Elbe to a halt. After this crucial insurrection the Elbe remained the frontier toward the east for almost 200 years. However, during this period the German population increased considerably. The German soil could no longer provide for this increase. In this emergency the broad, thinly settled regions east of the Reich were remembered. The procession of the German peoples toward the east began. To be sure the German emperors fostered the new eastward movement only in exceptional cases. They had taken a fancy to the south and now pursued the unholy dream of Roman world domination. The princes of the German frontier lands, on the contrary, realized the great possibilities which the east offered them. They put themselves at the head of the movement and thereby assured the success of German colonization on that side of the Elbe. The protection of German princes was all the more necessary in as much as the Slavs interposed bitter opposition at first to the onward march of the Germans. The sword had to clear the way for the settlers at first (chart 20).

CHART 20. — Result of the eastern colonization work of the German people in the Middle Ages Along the coast of the East Sea Henry the Lion, the Guelf Duke of Braunschweig, with the aid of his true friend, Adolf of Schauenburg, won the territories of Holstein, Lübeck and Mecklenburg. For the first time the German Reich extended as far as the East Sea. Trade with lands along the East Sea was developed. Henry the Lion devoted himself to this task with particular zeal. The founding of Lübeck, later head of the German Hansa, was one of the farseeing acts of this great colonizer. After the unfortunate rift between the Lion and Kaiser Frederick Barbarossa, the former’s work was destroyed because of the southern policies of the Reich. Nevertheless the regions had been so thickly settled with German peasants and urban dwellers already that, in spite of later seizures by the Danes, they henceforth retained their German character. At the same time Albert the Bear, of the tribe of the Askanians, originating in the old frontier district of Geros, secured control over the lands along the Havel, Spree and Priegnitz. By clever negotiations and sudden seizures he gradually extended his territory to the limits of the district of Brandenburg. He was the first who could properly call himself Margrave of Brandenburg. His successors were inspired by the same spirit. They extended the Askanian lands across the Oder and so shaped the point of departure for the later state of Brandenburg. South of the district Brandenburg the Wettinian princes strove to win land back again. They built up the old Sorben district and recovered the territory of the present state of Saxony for the Germans. Besides peasants there are primarily miners and lumbermen here, people who settled the mountain ranges and the interior of the Bohemian foreland. About this time the Sudeten territory, in which the German Marcomanni had formerly resided, also seemed to defy complete Germanisation. The Dukes of Przemysl, who were friendly to Germany, called German settlers onto the land in order to further its development. Likewise Ottokar II of Bohemia, a Czech king and a whole-hearted German, continued the Germanisation of the Bohemian region. However, when he, with shrewd political insight, undertook to build a solid front from Bohemia toward the east, he was driven out of his lands by the vile power politics of the Habsburgs. Once again a wave of Germans moved into the Bohemian lands when, during the middle of the 14th century, Charles IV of the House of Luxembourg made the Bohemian lands the center of the German Reich. He died, however, before he could complete his work. His successors were incapable of carrying on the great work. The settlements of the Czechs had already been pushed back to little remnants of land. The Germanisation of all Bohemia seemed to be assured. Then, just before the outbreak of the Reformation, the Hussite war flared up and completely destroyed the whole of German life in Bohemia. Since that time the Germans in this region have been forced into a defensive position. Although Bohemia belonged to the German Reich up to the World War, that is to say to Austria, it has never been possible to bring about complete Germanisation. And so a deep wedge has been driven between the northern and southern regions of the German population area hindering the development of a unified German front on the east. Whereas the land between the Elbe, Saale and Oder had in the main been acquired by warfare, the winning of Silesia and Pomerania followed a more peaceful course. The Slavic dukes of these countries called German peasants and settlers onto the land. The German settlers came at first from cities established by Germans. The penetration of the lowlands proceeded slowly on account of the ideological opposition of those living under Polish influence. In spite of that, however, by the 13th century both of these lands could be added to the German Reich, and attached to the German population area forever. With the incorporation of Pomerania and Silesia, the area about the Oder was completely Germanised. In the territory about the Vistula, on the contrary, the task of German colonization succeeded only in the northern parts. The opening up of

eastern territory for the Germans was accompanied by the conversion of the pagans residing there. The Poles, settled along the Vistula, had already, after the first meeting with the Germans, laid aside their paganism. So far as they were concerned, the need for conversion no longer existed. So long as these Polish regions were subject to the archbishopric of Magdeburg there existed no obstacle to colonisation. For the first time, in the year 1,000, when the religious enthusiast Kaiser Otto III founded the Polish archbishopric Gnesen, the Poles received their own polish national church. They also became independent politically and culturally thereby. So a second bulwark against the Germans came into being. Further penetration of the Germans on the north was checked. They were forced to follow the shores of the East Sea and leave behind them the national territory of the Poles as a standing threat on their flank. The recovery of the East Sea region lying east of the Vistula was the work of the German Order of Knights. Conrad Massovia, a Polish duke, called upon the German Orders for protection against the pagan Prussians and Lithuanians. During the course of yearlong struggles they took possession of the whole region from Danzig to Riga. Moorlands, islands, and numerous estuaries of the lower Vistula, and impenetrable wildernesses opposed them. Nevertheless, after 50 years of bloody fighting, the Order overcame the opposition. The German Order of Knights that ruled over the region which is today East Prussia drew German peasants and manual workers into the country, gave them land and soil and protected them from hostile attacks. About the year 1300 the power of the Order reached its high point. Many walled cities and numerous peasant settlements over the whole land were destroyed. Emigrants to this eastern land from all parts of the Reich built up new settlements everywhere. The colonisation of the Baltic lands situated to the north of East Prussia, in which the Order of the Brothers of the Sword took part, was more difficult. On account of the long sea journey a sufficient number of German peasants and manual workers could not be induced to go. Consequently the Germans in these districts were confined principally to the cities, which were strengthened by Hansa merchants from Bremen, Lübeck and Lüneburg. In the course of time, since the Order of German Knights had been weakened by internal conflicts, Poles and Lithuanians united in mutual hatred for the struggle against the Germans. There resulted the terrible defeat at Tannenberg in 1410. The Order of the Brothers of the Sword was completely driven out of the Baltic provinces and only the land around Marienburg was left for the Knightly Order of the Cross. But East Prussia was German and remained German, although for some decades it remained a Polish fief under the over-lordship of the Polish crown. During the period of the decline of the German Orders the power of the German Kaiser had also sunk to a mere shadow of what it was once. The driving force of the German people was spent, the march toward the east came to a halt. Much of that which the Germans had built up in the east by blood and toil was now exposed to the onrushing flood of Slavs. Only after Brandenburg-Prussia rose out of the ruins of the Thirty Years’ War did a new power appear which devoted itself consciously and with determination to the eastern problem of the Germans. The Great Elector rescued East Prussia from the feudal domination of the Poles and attached it firmly to Brandenburg. The soldier king, Frederick I, devoted his whole energy to building it up economically. Frederick the Great, with the acquisition of Silesia, offered for the first time a strong united German front in the northeast. He was able also to win back the bridge to East Prussia. As a result of the first partition of Poland in 1772 he obtained West Prussia, and by the third partition of Poland in 1793 Posen together with Thorn and Danzig fell into his hands. In that way the compact German population area was again united under German rule. For more than 500 years, therefore, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East and West Prussia, Silesia and Sudeten Germany and German Austria were to be listed as part of the German population area. In the course of a truly historical accomplishment all branches of the German people won back these territories which comprise almost one-half of the present German population area. This reconquering was primarily a colonization process and a cultivation of waste and unproductive districts by German peasants and townsmen who had been called upon to do this by princes, nobles and clergy. In no case were foreign peoples deprived of culture areas. German work and German achievements alone transformed these districts into cultural areas. Out of this fact arises a justifiable claim on behalf of the German people for these regions. Chapter IX. The German Culture Area The region influenced by German culture extends far beyond the boundaries of the German population area, far into the east of Europe. It comprises the territories of many non-Germans who, however, remained for centuries under the over-lordship of the Reich or belonged to that state of many peoples, Austria. These political ties no longer exist today. Nevertheless the influence of German culture is still plainly visible everywhere. The enduring traces of the influence of German culture are the islands of Germans scattered throughout the east of Europe. The regions where Germans have settled go back to the same colonisation activity which brought about for the Germans the recovery of the territory between the Elbe and the Vistula. Nevertheless, the new settlements for the most part lay so far beyond the gates of the Reich that they could not be attached to the German population area. The German colonists flowed into the lands of eastern Europe in three great waves. These were the eastward migrations from the 11th to the 14th centuries inclusive, from the 17th and 18th centuries, and of the 19th century. About four million Germans now live in the Germanic regions of eastern Europe as successors to these colonists. During the course of centuries some rather large groups of Germans abroad have developed a cultural life of their own and seem, just at present, to be transforming themselves into new branches of the German people. The first wave of eastward migration occurred during the time of the great German eastern colonisation (11th to 14th centuries). The two occurrences are closely related to each other. They are distinguishable only by reason of the distance of the new settlements from the central core of the German territory. The settlement of Transylvania, the Zips, the Baltic, and the Gottsche go back to the time of the first eastward migration. The Zips lie in Czechoslovakia. About 42,000 Germans reside there, the so-called Zip Saxons. In the language island of Gottsche (Yugoslavia) there are 44 purely German localities with around 13,000 Germans.

Of greater significance are the Germans of Transylvania and the Balkans, whose history, therefore, we shall consider more in detail. The Saxons of Transylvania constitute the oldest group of German nationals abroad. About 1150 the first German settlers heeded the call of the Hungarian king, who settled them as a frontier watch against the onrushing Turks. During the period of the German knightly Orders, Transylvanians (1225) once more received emigrants from the Reich, and after the Mongolian invasion (1241) a third stream of colonists came into the country. For centuries the Saxons of Transylvania have lived in political independence and created their own great principality. Since then they have developed a culture of their own on an agrarian basis and their own political consciousness. This has given them the strength to preserve their purity as a people through eight centuries, although their political fate has been ever changing. For in the year 1526 they fell under Turkish over-lordship; about 1700 they came under Austrian rule; after 1867 Transylvania then merged with Hungary; and since 1919 they have belonged to Rumania. The Saxons of Transylvania number today some 230,000 Germans, who boldly maintain their own character as a people against every attack. The Baltic Germans in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are a century younger. Seven hundred years ago German merchants and manual workers with the Hansa; and German knights and peasants with the Order of the Brothers of the Sword, moved into the Baltic region. There they founded cities and towns and gave the land its cultural imprint. Up until the middle of the 15th century the Baltic countries, together with East Prussia, constituted a state of German Orders belonging to the Reich. With the decline of the Orders the Reich lost the Baltic lands also. For several centuries the fight for possession of them went on between Sweden, Poland and Russia. These struggles almost brought about the end of the Germans. When, however, the three countries fell to Russia in 1793, a new age blossomed forth. German culture and a high degree of self government made the Baltic provinces the most worthwhile part of the Czarist Empire. And yet the powerful process of Russianisation soon set in, from which the Baltic Germans had to suffer until the World War. Then the Bolshevist revolution brought with it the greatest devastation. After the War the independent Baltic states came into existence. Within their confines the Baltic Germans attempt today with great expenditures of money and goods to maintain their German culture. At the present time 150,000 Germans still live in the Baltic states. With the end of the eastward movement during the middle ages, the migration of German colonists toward eastern Europe finally ceased. Not until three centuries later did a new wave of eastward migration set in. The devastation’s of the Thirty Years’ War had increased the economic needs of the German people immeasurably. Over large parts of the Reich there was added the spiritual distress due to religious and political suppression and the narrow mindedness of little states. It is no wonder, therefore, that many Germans longed for better living opportunities. And so when, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the rulers of eastern Europe called for German colonists for the purpose of better settling their regions, large bands of Germans heeded the call. They were settled in Carpathian-Russia, Kongress-Poland, Sathmar, the Bukowina, along the middle Danube and the lower Volga. CHART 21. — Scattered settlements of Germans in eastern Europe 

In Kongress-Poland 350,000 Germans live in a number of little villages as well as in small industrial cities centred about Lodz which was founded by them. Carpathian-Russia or east Slovakia belongs to Czechoslovakia. 15,000 Germans are distributed about in the region, for the most part in small village settlements. The Bukowina, the Buchenland, is a region belonging to the state of Rumania. 70,000 Germans dwell here, principally miners and lumbermen. Not until later were peasant settlements added. Sathmar also belongs to Rumania. About 50,000 Sathmar Swabians live here as a group of poor, small scale peasants in a foreign environment. The Danube-Swabians and the Volga-Germans constitute the largest group of nationals at this time. In the period from 1722 to 1786 the Danube-Swabians were settled along the middle Danube by the Austrian emperor. The regions here, wrested from the Turks –Batschka, the Banat and the Baranya (Swabian Turks) –had been almost completely depopulated and destroyed during the course of long periods of warfare, and were now to be built up again by German settlers. After decades of hard work the Danube-Swabians transformed the regions into productive, arable land, and, in consequence, expanded tremendously. In contrast to the Transylvania-Saxons, however, they did not have the right of self- government, thereby lacking the strongest inducement for developing a culture of their own. For that reason they were seriously threatened by the danger of Magyarisation when they came under the control of Hungary after its awakening. Following the World War the Swabian region along the Danube was partitioned off to Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Hungary. Through contacts with German soldiers they had again acquired their national self-consciousness and joined together in cultural associations. Today they are one of the most active of the German groups abroad. Over one million Germans continue to live in the Swabian region of the three states mentioned along the Danube. The Germans along the Volga originated during the same period. The German born Czarina, Catherine, called peasants and manual workers to Russia and settled them along the lower Volga. In connection with this recruiting, cultural and military freedom had been promised the Germans for all time. Nevertheless, at the end of the 19th century, military freedom was done away with and many Germans along the Volga migrated to North and South America. The Germans along the Volga, by persistent hard work, have made out of the unproductive steppes assigned to them the corn rib of Russia. Up to the World War they were the models for the peasantry throughout the entire Russian Empire. After the establishment of the Bolshevist Soviet Republic, the Germans along the Volga were also awarded political self determination. The autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of the Germans along the Volga is about the size of Belgium and has 500,000 German inhabitants. Self determination has been of little use to the Germans, however. Bolshevism has fought the well to do German peasants as Kulaks. Many were consigned to forced labour and still others starved pitifully in the great famine crisis. the number of Germans living in the Volga republic today is not to be overlooked. Also during the 19th century numerous other groups of German nationals abroad sprang up in eastern Europe. But only a small part of them came directly from the German homeland. The greater part came into being instead through resettlement within the older national groups. In Croatia-Slovenia (Yugoslavia) the Swabians along the Danube created daughter colonies in which 160,000 Germans live today. In the Dobrutscha (Rumania) 15,000 Germans dwell in some 31 villages. They came from German settlements in southern Russia. The Germans in Wolhynia constitute the most significant group of nationals in this century. By hard work these Germans have also developed flourishing colonies out of unproductive soil. Before the War their cultural development was checked by the Russians. In the face of these measures directed against them the Germans joined together in cultural associations. As the fruits of the work of their organisations began to ripen, the World War broke out. Wolhynia was a centre of military activity and all the German colonists were dispatched to Siberia. After the conclusion of peace with Russia those who had been banished were able to wend their way back again. But their territory had been partitioned off to Poland and Soviet Russia. Courageously they went to work again and in spite of the fact that many migrated to South America, about 320,000 Germans are today still settled in both Wolhynian regions. In the 19th century German settlers also came to Bessarabia which fell to Rumania as a result of the War. Today 76,000 Germans live in 130 Bessarabian settlements. The colonisation of Galicia (Poland) by Germans began after the conquest of this region by Austria (1772). It is estimated that the number of Germans in Galicia today is 60,000. The Germans in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) are still more recent. They consist of both German nationals and German colonists abroad and number about 23,000. Thus the whole of the territory of western Europe is over-set with islands of Germans. They have exerted a strong cultural influence on their environment. These islands are the radiating points for efforts to raise the level of soil cultivation, for better housing, for cultivating the handicrafts, and for developing the scientific spirit. German law sets the standard for the legal systems throughout central Europe. The municipal law of Magdeburg and the Saxon mirror, for example, apply even into the confines of Russia. In the language development of eastern peoples German words are taken as the symbols for all designations of the higher cultural life. The German language, the language of the great powers in central Europe, is the language of trade and commerce as far as the territorial boundaries of the eastern Slavs. From the Ordenburg of Marius to the German settlements in the Crimea, even to the frontiers of European Turkey, that plainly visible local culture frontier of Europe extends, a frontier which is identical with the eastern boundary of the cultural influence of the Germans. – K. Trampler.

German cultural areas in the broadest sense also comprise the compact German settlements overseas. they have come into being primarily through migrations which began after the Thirty Years’ War, and reached their high point during the 19th century. During this period about 6 million Germans, whose descendants amount to from 10 to 12 million, have migrated to the United States of North America. Only a small part of these have remained German conscious, however. It is estimated that there are 3 million German speaking persons in the United states of America today. After the War they joined together and founded a flourishing press and associated life. Some 400,000 Germans live in Canada. As a consequence of their wide dispersion and their varied antecedents, the Germans of Canada lack a closely knit cohesiveness. Larger and more compact German settlements exist in the states of South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Chile. They were likewise all established in the 19th century. Here the Germans maintain many German schools, German newspapers, and cultural associations. Some 700,000 Germans live in Brazil, 200,000 in Argentina, and 30,000 in Chile, who confess to their German identity. Only small groups of Germans live in the remaining states of South America and they have settled principally in the cities. Their number may amount to about 25,000. There is also a large number of Germans in Australia. Since 1838 some 85,000 Germans have migrated there. Perhaps 200,000 Australians are of German descent. The greater part is, to be sure, no longer folk conscious. After all perhaps 90,000 are still to be looked upon as having German sensibilities. There are also many thousands of Germans in Asia, Africa, and on the borders of the Orient. They do not settle, to be sure, in compact regions, but form small groups in cities instead. *** The German colonies likewise are to be looked upon as spheres of German cultural influence. They experienced their first development under German administration, were opened up and explored by Germans, and have thereby received a German imprint. The German Reich began to acquire colonies very late. There are two reasons for this. In the first place the Spanish Habsburgs sat on the throne of Germany at the time of great colonial expansion. They not only set for themselves the task of conquering a world empire in which the sun never set, but they also wished to establish Catholicism as the sole religion in this world empire. The task of acquiring the world empire itself was assigned to the Spanish motherland, while the Germans were supposed to fight to win Europe back to Catholicism. And so the German Reich was entangled in bloody, religious wars, while Spain, Portugal, England and France won for themselves an enormous colonial empire. As a result of this division of labour, the German Reich got the raw end of the deal. Another reason is to be found in the fact that the German Reich first, during the second half of the last century, attained that cohesive unity which is necessary for a successful colonizing enterprise. All attempts, therefore, undertaken before this time were destined to fail. In the year 1528 the Welser had acquired the land of Venezuela as a family fief from Emperor Charles V. They tried to build it up as a German colony. Nevertheless this attempt had to be given up by 1555 after the German leader had been murdered. Later the Great Elector attempted once again to set foot in Africa. In 1683 he conquered the territory along the Gold Coast and in 1687 along the Cape of Arguin. But the attempt to establish permanent colonies here did not succeed this time either. Although the natives remained true to Brandenburg, the African occupation had to be given up again in 1718. It was the united German Reich under its great Chancellor Bismarck which finally succeeded in actually acquiring colonial possessions. Although the so called representatives of the people at that time even opposed the possession of colonies, Bismarck finally brought about the acquisition of colonies, bearing in mind the colonial urge of our people. How greatly the German people longed for colonial activity is shown by the fact that all our colonies were originally private business undertakings of German trading companies. In this way the Bremen merchant, Adolf Luderitz, by treaty with the ruling house of the Hottentots, acquired in 1883 the Bight of Angra, which is called Luderitz-Bight after him today. In the following year he purchased additional stretched of land along the coast, about 150 kilometres in width, from the Orange River up as far as the Hottentot Bay. On April 24, 1884, Bismarck placed the territory under the protection of the German Reich. The first German colony was thereby established. Further treaties with the natives enlarged the colony to its present size. In January 1904 the Herero uprising broke out and in the fall of the same year the Hottentots revolted. At the end of 1906 peace was re-established. Following this satisfactory state of affairs, German South-West Africa quickly blossomed forth. Great irrigation projects, ranches, mines and flourishing little towns spread out over all the land. Before the War 13,500 Germans lived in German South-West Africa, which is twice the size of the Reich. In July 1884 the well known German African explorer, Dr. Nightingale, was commissioned to raise the German flag in Togoland and Cameroon. After considerable trouble with England, Bismarck forced the London Colonial Conference in August 1884 to recognize the three aforementioned African colonies. As a result of colonial negotiations with France, Cameroon were enlarged in 1911 to their present dimensions. German East Africa goes back to the pioneer work of Dr. Karl Peters, a true son of Lower Saxony. At 27 years of age he went to East Africa and by treaties with the chief tribes acquired, in 1884, four large tracts of land. the German East African Company which he founded received an imperial letter of protection from Bismarck on February 27, 1885. Some years later there followed the final determination of the boundaries of German East Africa through the German-English agreement of April 

1, 1890. All the land between the Indian Ocean and the three great lakes of Africa, the Victoria, Tanganyika and the Niassa, was recognised as a German protectorate. The former rulers of this land, the Arabs, staged a bloody uprising in 1888 which was put down by Hermann Wissmann. In 1905 an uprising of the Negroes in the hinterland of Kilwa broke out, which was quickly suppressed however. Climatic conditions in German East Africa are favourable and permit Europeans to settle there. Soon large plantations sprang up from which coffee, hemp, cotton, oil seeds, and spices were harvested. Before the War 4701 Germans lived in East Africa. The German South Sea possessions were acquired during these same decades. Adolf von Hausemann had extensive interests in New Guinea and brought about the acquisition of this territory by the German Reich in 1884. The acquisition of Karolina, Mariana, Palau Island and Samoa followed in 1899. CHART 22. — The German colonies The German colonies were built up by great sacrifice on the part of the Reich. After profiting from the first experiences, the colonies blossomed forth mightily and soon demonstrated that they were profitable. Their soil was not only moistened with the sweat of German planters and labourers, but watered with the blood of German soldiers. In spite of that the German people were denied the right to colonies at Versailles. The lie regarding colonies, which is refuted by the German successes and by the natives themselves, was intended merely to veil and to excuse the robbery. German East Africa fell to England; German South-West Africa to the Union of South Africa. France received Cameroon; and Togoland was divided up between England and France. New Guinea was given to the Federation of Australia, and the remaining South Sea possessions were assigned to France. To be sure, these countries received only the powers of Mandatories over the colonies, so that legally the possibility exists of restoring them to the owner. The German Reich will at all events never cease to demand the restoration of its colonies. Chapter X. the Political Area of the German Folk The boundaries of the German Reich, that is, the political territory of our people, have experienced many changes since the beginning of German history. During periods when there was unity of political purpose the frontiers of the state extended beyond the borders of the German population area. Periods of internal dissension and lack of unity, however, led to the involution of the state’s territory behind the population area. After the close of the great eastern colonisation movement, the Rhine, Danube and Vistula were the life arteries of the German Reich. All of the German population area lay within the boundaries of the German Reich. In the west not only the crests of mountains, but also the foothills of the mountains, important from the military point of view, were German. In the south the passes of the eastern and western Alps lay within German territory. The Bohemian Citadel belonged for centuries to the German Reich. The remaining part of the eastern boundaries between Silesia and East Prussia was reduced to the shortest possible dimensions. In all directions the boundaries of the state as well as the military lines of defence were pushed far beyond the frontiers of our population area. A strong policy on the part of the German Reich needed to be striven for continually to hold to the last the life arteries and favourable defensive positions of the German Reich. After the downfall of the Hohenstaufen, however, the German Reich sank to a mere shadow of what it once was. The German princes continued to make themselves independent and the little states gained the upper hand. There no longer existed any central power which would have been strong enough to hold the frontiers against the onslaughts of neighbouring peoples. These weaknesses of the German Reich were taken advantage of by its neighbours to give effect to their geographic and national aspirations. Consequently, during the succeeding centuries, almost all of them at one time or another established themselves on German soil. Swedes, Danes, the French, Italians, Poles, and Russians have tried repeatedly to win for themselves land belonging to the German people. Thus the land along the Vistula was occupied by the Poles for a time. In the north the island of Rugen and a part of Upper Pomerania was still in the hands of the Swedes in 1815, and Schleswig-Holstein still in Danish possession in 1866. Likewise, for centuries, France stood on the German Upper Rhine. Nevertheless it was possible to cancel all these losses again. Even before the World War, on the western and south-eastern frontiers, parts of the German population area had been loosed from the Reich. A part of these had been seized by foreign states, a part had made themselves independent politically. Especially great were the losses which the German Reich suffered because large sections of the German population area were made independent. These losses were due primarily to the lack of unity within the Reich, and to the anti-German policies of the Habsburg Kaiser. Naturally the great powers of Europe also contributed their part thereto. In 1315 the Austrian Habsburgs wanted to annex to their dynastic holdings the land belong to the Swiss Confederation. In the course of long struggles (1315-1388), however, the Confederation was able to offer successful resistance, and save itself from the Habsburgs. At first, as a group of independent communes, it remained within the Reich directly subject to the old German Empire; in other respects, however, going its own way. After the Thirty Years’ War (1648), at the instigation of France, Switzerland withdrew from the Reich Federation and became an independent state. Of the 24 Swiss cantons, 17 are German, 

Latin, and one mixed. The Germans are the most significant, historically, and even today are the real supporters of the state. They profess German culture in its entirety. Political conditions at the mouth of the Rhine developed much as they did in the region around its source. As a defense against French attacks (1302) the cities of Flanders joined together, and during the following centuries secured a considerable degree of self government within the framework of the Reich. During the period of the Reformation they accepted the reformed teachings. Then, when the Netherlands fell to the House of Habsburg, the latter attempted, with cruel force, to win the land back to Catholicism again. The Spanish Habsburgs preferred to rule over a graveyard rather than to endure apostasy from the Holy Mother, the Roman Church. The great war for the liberation of the Netherlands began (1568-1648). The German Reich offered no support to the oppressed brothers in their hard fight. When the seven northern provinces obtained their freedom, therefore, they broke away from the Reich and made themselves independent (1648). Since then the low Germans in Holland have taken on a cultural development of their own and have developed their own written language. After the separation of Holland, the southern provinces of the Netherlands reverted to the Habsburgs. Although they belonged to Habsburg- Austria until the time of Napoleon, therefore to the Reich, they followed the same special kind of cultural development as Holland. After the overthrow of Napoleon (1815) they, together with Luxembourg, joined the kingdom of Holland. But fifteen years later they, together with the western part of Luxembourg, made themselves independent again and formed the new state of Belgium. Two thirds of the territory of Belgium is an old Germanic, German population area. In spite of that the Latin Walloons rule the state even today. The Flemish section of the population has a hard time fighting for its rights. The part of Luxembourg not added to Belgium became a Grand Duchy in 1830. The ruler was the king of Holland. Nevertheless the little country remained in the Federation of the German Reich until 1867. Then France extended its hand to Luxembourg. Prussia opposed the move. Then, through England’s mediation, Luxembourg was declared neutral. Until 1919, however, it remained in the customs’ union with the German Reich. Then this tie also was dissolved. Since the 4th century the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg had belonged to the German language area. Its changeful history has brought it strongly under Romantic influence, so that today French has become the preferred language of the educated, and the second official language. The prevailing speech of everyday life, however, is German. The German folk- consciousness of the people in Luxembourg is suppressed in favor of a specially-derived type. Thus four independent buffer states were created between France and the German Reich. The German Reich had to bear the cost of this development. For by far the largest part of the territory of these states was torn away from the German population area. In the southeast of the Reich two more countries were torn away from the Reich and set up as independent states during the last century. CHART 23. — Territorial losses in the west After the Thirty Years’ War Prussia grew even stronger to a point where it was actually the dominant power in the German Reich. Austria, bearer of the old Imperial crown, had, on the contrary, turned toward the southeast and conquered territories, large sections of which were populated by non-Germans. The task of governing an empire of many peoples soon laid claim to so much of Austria’s strength that its Imperial German tasks fell into the background. And so when, after the collapse of the old Reich and the removal of the Napoleonic danger, Imperial thoughts revived in the German people, the question necessarily arose: who should take over the leadership of the new Reich. It came to a showdown in the war between Prussia Handbook For Schooling The Hitler Youth 27 Page 28 Handbook For Schooling The Hitler Youth 28 and Austria (1866), out of which Prussia emerged as victor. The new German Reich was finally established under Prussian leadership in 1871. Austria withdrew from this Reich and turned over more emphatically toward the southeast. Once again on the German population area a new state had broken away from the Reich. Along with Austria and almost unnoticed the principality of Liechtenstein also broke away from the German Reich. Its territory had been raised to that of a principality of the old German Empire in 1719. After the downfall of the old Reich (1806) it became a completely independent state. Nevertheless, in matters of economic and foreign policy, Liechtenstein leaned heavily on Austria. After the World War it dissolved these ties and turned to Switzerland. Its independence unimpaired, it remains today a part of the Swiss sphere of economic influence. So far as the attachment of its population and its culture are concerned, it is pure German and, in contrast to Luxembourg, consciously fosters its German art. In addition to losses due to making territories belonging to the German people independent, the Germans have also suffered territorial losses by a process of denationalization of the German population area. The nationalistic struggle on the western frontiers was especially violent. About 1550, after France had attained political unity as a national state, its thrust to the Rhine policy became evident. The attack on the German population area was first prepared by clever cultural propaganda. This cultural policy gradually succeeded in getting in under the frontier walls of the German people and shoving them bit by bit towards the east.

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